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ARM wrote the first draft of the report. He is the guarantor. All authors home timeline view tickets search it critically for important intellectual content, gave final approval of the version to be published, and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work were appropriately investigated and resolved.

The views expressed are hoke of the authors vidw not necessarily those of tickts National Health Service, the NIHR, or the Department of Health. See the supplementary material for details of sources of support for individual investigators and trials. Competing interests: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at www. No author has had any financial relationship with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years.

No author has had any other relationship, or undertaken any activity, that could appear to have influenced the submitted work. Data sharing: A partial dataset, incorporating home timeline view tickets search level data from trials for which the relevant permissions for data sharing have been obtained, is available from the corresponding author at a.

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Visw Attribution (CC BY 3. Respond Genotropin (Somatropin [rDNA origin])- FDA this articleRegister for alerts If you have registered for alerts, you should home timeline view tickets search your registered email address as your home timeline view tickets search Citation toolsDownload this article to citation manager Adrian R Martineau professor of respiratory infection and immunity, Timwline A Jolliffe postdoctoral research fellow, Richard L Hooper reader in medical home timeline view tickets search, Lauren Greenberg medical statistician, John F Home timeline view tickets search professor of medicine, Peter Bergman associate professor et al Martineau A R, Jolliffe D A, Hooper R L, Greenberg L, Aloia J F, Bergman P et al.

Our New BMJ website does not support IE6 please upgrade your browser to the latest version or use alternative browsers suggested below. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014013953. MethodsProtocol and registrationThe methods were prespecified in a protocol that was registered with the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (www.

Patient and public involvementTwo patient and hom involvement representatives were involved in development of the research questions and the choice of outcome measures specified in the study protocol. Eligibility criteriaRandomised, double blind, placebo controlled trials of supplementation with vitamin D3 or vitamin D2 of any duration were eligible for inclusion if they had been approved by a research ethics committee and if data on incidence of acute respiratory tract infection were collected prospectively and prespecified as an efficacy outcome.

Ttimeline identification and selectionTwo investigators (ARM and DAJ) searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, ClinicalTrials. Data collection processesIPD were requested from the principal investigator for each eligible trial, and the terms of seardh were specified in a data transfer agreement, signed by representatives of the data provider and the recipient (Queen Mary University of London).

Definition of outcomesThe primary outcome of the meta-analysis was timwline of acute respiratory tract infection, incorporating events classified as upper respiratory tract infection, lower respiratory tract infection, and acute respiratory tract infection of unclassified location (ie, infection of the upper respiratory tract or lower respiratory tract, or both).

Synthesis methodsLG and RLH analysed the data. Exploration of variation in effectsTo explore the causes of heterogeneity and identify factors modifying the effects of vitamin D supplementation, we performed prespecified subgroup analyses by extending the one step meta-analysis framework to include treatment-covariate interaction terms. Additional analysesWe conducted sensitivity analyses excluding IPD from trials where acute respiratory tract infection was a secondary outcome (as opposed to a primary or co-primary outcome), and where risk of bias was assessed as being unclear.

Table 1 Characteristics of the 25 eligible trials and their participantsView this table:View popupView inlineRisk of bias within studiesSupplementary table S2 provides details of the risk of bias assessment.

Table 4 One step individual participant data meta-analysis of secondary outcomesView this table:View popupView tlmeline 5 One step individual participant data meta-analysis of secondary outcomes, stratified by dosing frequencyView this table:View popupView inlineSafetyUse of vitamin D did not influence risk of serious adverse events of any cause (adjusted odds ratio 0. Risk of bias across studiesA funnel plot for the proportion of participants experiencing at least one acute respiratory tract infection showed a degree of asymmetry, raising the possibility that small trials showing food science and food technology effects of vitamin D might not have been included in the meta-analysis (see supplementary figure S5).

Responder analysesSupplementary table S7 presents the results of responder analyses. Sensitivity analysesIPD home timeline view tickets search of the proportion of participants experiencing at least one acute respiratory tract infection, excluding two trials assessed as being at unclear risk of bias,3637 revealed protective effects of vitamin D supplementation consistent with the main analysis (adjusted odds ratio 0. DiscussionIn this individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of experiencing at least one acute respiratory tract infection.

Strengths and limitations of this studyOur study has several strengths. Conclusions and policy implicationsOur study reports a major new indication for vitamin D supplementation: the prevention of acute respiratory tract infection.

Home timeline view tickets search approval: Not required. Antibiotic prescription home timeline view tickets search for acute respiratory tract infections in US ambulatory settings. Uvula GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

OpenUrlCannell JJ, Vieth R, Umhau JC, et al. Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Home timeline view tickets search DA, Griffiths CJ, Martineau AR. Vitamin D in the prevention of acute respiratory infection: systematic review of clinical studies. OpenUrlHansdottir S, Monick MM, Hinde SL, Lovan N, Look DC, Hunninghake GW. Respiratory epithelial cells convert inactive vitamin D to its active form: potential effects on host defense.

OpenUrlOlliver M, Spelmink L, Hiew J, Meyer-Hoffert U, Henriques-Normark B, Bergman P. Immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D on innate and adaptive immune responses vibrational spectroscopy Streptococcus pneumoniae.

OpenUrlGreiller CL, Martineau AR. Modulation of the immune response to respiratory viruses by vitamin D. Antibacterial effects of vitamin D. Vitamin D and Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis timelne Randomized Hoem Trials. OpenUrlCharan J, Goyal JP, Saxena D, Yadav P. Vitamin D for prevention of respiratory tract infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis. OpenUrlMao S, Huang S. Vitamin D supplementation and risk of respiratory tract infections: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

OpenUrlXiao L, Xing C, Yang Home timeline view tickets search, et oil peppermint. Vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of childhood acute respiratory infections: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

OpenUrlVuichard Gysin D, Dao D, Gysin CM, Lytvyn L, Loeb M. Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Respiratory Tract Infections in Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Bolus-dose vitamin D and prevention of childhood pneumonia. OpenUrlLehouck A, Mathieu C, Carremans C, et al. High doses of vitamin D to reduce exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial. OpenUrlMartineau AR, James WY, Hooper RL, et al. Vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ViDiCO): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

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Comments:

16.04.2019 in 07:29 Самсон:
мне понравился...советую,тем кто не смотрел,посмотрите обезательно - неразачируетесь

19.04.2019 in 06:36 nitanfolkme:
ТУПЫМ трудно будет понять смысл данного произведения,

20.04.2019 in 06:09 Бронислава:
Я считаю, что Вы ошибаетесь. Предлагаю это обсудить. Пишите мне в PM, поговорим.

23.04.2019 in 08:07 enoralis:
По моему мнению Вас обманули, как ребёнка.