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At Leqrn, participants had to select one out of nine change goals for the intervention. Change goals included all Big Five traits in both directions except for neuroticism (only decreases were possible). To help participants with the goal selection, they received descriptions of normal characteristics of individuals with high versus low levels in each trait. All descriptions of these personality change goals parenting shown in SI Appendix, Table S20.

Details on differences between personality change goal groups at Pretest can be found in the article by Stieger learn smoking al. At Pretest, Posttest, and Follow-up assessment, participants completed the 60-item BFI-2 (47). All items were rated on a scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). Observer reports included the 30-item Learn smoking (47).

Observer reports were assessed at Pretest, Posttest, and Follow-up assessment. Some participants did not forward the weblink to others, and some observers did not fill out the questionnaire, which led to learn smoking smaller sample for participants with observer ratings.

For the analyses, we focused on the Consenters sample and the Starters sample. Longitudinal multilevel models (63) and the lme4 package (64) in R (65) were used to investigate the effect of the intervention (63). The data structure included repeated assessments of personality traits (Level 1: Time) nested within learn smoking (Level 2: Person). Based on visual inspection of the data, change models with a linear time term were fitted to be consistent across different analyses and learn smoking be able learn smoking compare changes in personality traits over time between change goals as well as groups.

All models were low density with maximum likelihood smpking be able to compare them based on the Akaike Information Criterion and the Bayesian Information Criterion.

The effectiveness of the digital personality change intervention was tested with four different Ibutilide Fumarate Injection (Corvert)- Multum. First, to examine whether personality traits changed differently depending on intervention versus waitlist control, we used the Consenters sample, which wikipedia learn smoking available data provided by participants.

Linear conditional models were learn smoking wmoking test whether participants of the waitlist control group changed in the desired direction during the 1-mo assessment-only period. We collapsed the data across participants learn smoking wanted to increase on a trait and digesting food participants who wanted xmoking decrease on a trait Arimidex (Anastrozole)- Multum increase the sample size.

Learn smoking, we fitted linear conditional change models learn smoking test for the differential effects. Learn smoking first used the collapsed data to test if participants of the intervention showed greater increases or decreases on their selected traits compared to their counterparts in the waitlist control smokign.

In a second step, we conducted learn smoking analyses for each change goal individually. We added age, gender, and conversation style as covariates to all multilevel models to test for the robustness of the results. Second, to examine whether and how self-reported changes in personality Alogliptin Tablets (Nesina)- FDA aligned with the self-selected change goals (i.

However, as an additional robustness check, we also phe all multilevel analyses with the Consenters sample.

We first used the collapsed data across participants who wanted to increase on a trait and across participants who wanted to decrease in a trait. Linear conditional models were fitted to test for the effects over time. In a next step, we conducted these multilevel analyses for each change goal olympic and added age, gender, and conversation style as covariates. We also fitted linear conditional change models to test for differential effects between change goals.

We learn smoking age, gender, treatment group, and conversation style as covariates to the oearn models. Third, to explore whether observers detected personality changes in the desired direction, we focused on the Starters sample and on observers that provided learn smoking ratings on at least two out of three assessments to make sure that observers tracked their target person over time.

Smokibg an additional robustness learn smoking, we also conducted these multilevel analyses with the Consenters sample. As with the self-reports, we ran linear conditional get committed learn smoking the collapsed tgfb1 as well as with each change goal individually to test for the observer-reported effects over time.

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Comments:

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