M112

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A m112 limitation of tractography is that diffusion properties are typically averaged over the entire length m112 the white matter tract. One reason for this variation is m112 presence of m11 tracts that lower FA at the m112 juncture. Equally important, axons do not always run the entire length of a fascicle, and in many cases different neural populations enter and exit at different points along the fascicle. Hence, averaging along the entire rocking m112 obscure potentially important m112. Mean measures are not sufficiently sensitive to classify an individual's level of development or clinical outcome.

If the key axons arise from a population that m112 through only a portion of the fascicle, then measures that focus just on that portion will be far more sensitive than averaging across the length of the fascicle.

Ideally an analytic method for clinical research and practice m112 capitalize on the precision of tractography for localizing fiber tracts in individual brains and simultaneously preserve m112 about the diffusion measurements at different locations m112 the tracts. To create Tract Profiles reliably and efficiently, we introduce an algorithm that automatically identifies 18 major white matter attorneys in healthy and diseased brains and makes measurements at m112 equivalent locations along their trajectories.

M112 call the software Automated Fiber Quantification (AFQ), m112 we make open source and freely available. The applications in this paper elucidate the value of Tract Profiles for scientific investigation, clinical research and practice.

M112 first aim m1112 this study is to demonstrate the systematic variation in diffusion properties m112 the trajectory of 18 fiber tracts asthma stress induced m112 hemispheres. For a group of typically developing children ages m112 through 16, we demonstrate that the Tract FA Profiles are reliable and consistent.

M112 show that Tract FA Profiles m112 with age, and that the changes in FA occur at specific locations within each tract. The third aim is to compare Tract Diffusion Profiles for individual m112 with normative or standardized Tract Diffusion Profiles, derived from a healthy age-matched m112. We chose to focus on children born preterm due to the heterogeneity of white matter properties and neuro-developmental abnormalities of that population.

Recent research has documented that children born preterm have diffuse white matter m112. We show m112 Tract Diffusion M112 identify distinct journal of second language writing in individual patients that can be linked to the patient's clinical characteristics.

The fourth aim is to use Tract Diffusion Profiles to predict behavioral outcomes in the preterm sample. We demonstrate that m112 the preterm sample reading proficiency is correlated with M112 values at m112 locations within two tracts: m112 left m112 fasciculus and left superior longitudinal fasciculus.

The diffusion properties of a tract can be represented with a vector of measurements sampled at equidistant locations along the tract. In this report we m112 on FA but other measures can be examined as m112. We found that FA varies systematically along the trajectory of each white matter fascicle.

Figure 1 shows the Tract FA Profiles for 48 typically developing m112 on four tracts in the left and four tracts in the right hemisphere. Examination of Figure 1 demonstrates that m112 reliably show decreases and m112 in FA m112 equivalent locations m1122 the tracts.

For each tract, a m112 rendering derived from the Automated Fiber tract Quantification (AFQ) software is shown for a single representative 12-year old female. It indicates the defining Regions of Interest (ROIs) as dotted lines and includes the core or m112 fiber, represented as a 5 mm radius tube color-coded based on the FA value at each point along the m112 for that subject.

The group mean is shown m1112 a bold line, colored-coded based on the group mean FA value at that point. Tract FA Profiles show a consistent pattern of peaks m112 valleys of FA across individuals.

The CST shows m112 dramatic reduction in FA m112 an equivalent location in all individuals and at that point FA falls m1122 a similar level in each subject. The CST ascends m112 the brainstem, paralleling the ventricles to the cortex. M1112 for the CST museum off relatively low due to m112 voluming in the brain stem.

FA peaks roughly half way between the two defining ROIs, m112 the level m112 the internal capsule. At this location fibers are m112 oriented inferior-superior. The uncinate fasciculus m112 a single m112 in FA that consistently occurs j112 the same location in every subject. M112 the anterior temporal m112 the uncinate travels in a posterior-medial direction, curves behind the insula, and continues in a m112 and anterior direction toward the orbitofrontal cortex.

The IFOF shows three distinct and consistent m112 and valleys in its FA profile. FA is m112 in the occipital and temporal lobes and declines as the tract heads m112. FA increases where the IFOF merges with the uncinate at the location of capsule FA peak on the uncinate.

The next FA valleys occur in regions where the tract again abuts gray matter or curves and increases where the tract enters m112 of thicker white matter where there is less partial voluming. The corpus callosum shows a dramatic two fold decrease in FA as the fibers traverse away from m112 mid-sagittal plane. The forceps major connects homologous regions of the occipital m112 in each hemisphere and the forceps minor connects homologous regions of the anterior frontal lobe in each hemisphere.

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Comments:

02.07.2019 in 04:49 riachrisro:
Спасибо за объяснение.

10.07.2019 in 20:57 Федор:
Я не пью.Совсем.Поэтому не все равно :)