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It should be mentioned, however, that NGO support for timber certification is not universal. Producer and industry views A large segment of the producer Sterrile has been reluctant to embrace the certification movement. Opponents cite unproved market demand and question the equity of requiring an individual producer to internalize the environmental and social costs when the benefits accrue to society.

Free-riders, those who make green claims without taking the same measures as their competitors, create further disadvantages and disincentives for voluntary compliance (Crossley, Primo Braga and Varangis, 1994). Others have sought to Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA the influence of independent certification programmes or have opted for their own schemes (Steeile assert green marketing claims.

Months ago views on certification in the industry vary from outright opposition to strong support. Strong support comes from importers who are directly faced with mounting pressure from local environmental groups, or traders (particularly retailers) who see certification as an opportunity to open a market niche or to obtain a distinct competitive advantage.

Official government views on certification Very few governments have adopted official positions with regard to timber certification. It is noteworthy that the views of departments or ministries within countries are often not in harmony, as departments of foreign affairs, economic and trade affairs, forestry and environment may have different perspectives on the subject.

Certification schemes are being developed or studied at the international, regional and national levels and exist in both developed and developing countries. However, only a small number of schemes are operational at present and the volume of timber covered by them is minor. Operational schemes include those of the Forest Conservation Program Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA Scientific Certification Systems and the Smart Wood Certification Program of Rainforest Alliance in the United States, and the Responsible Forestry Programme of the Indications are given Association and SGS Silviconsult Ltd in the United Kingdom.

A fourth area could be developments in the market pressures towards certification. Evaluating the sustainability of forest management practices is a key Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA in the certification process In many European countries there is an ongoing process to develop national-level criteria Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA sustainable forestry within the so-called Helsinki process.

The work bayer model been expanded to boreal and temperate forests outside Europe under the so-called Montreal process. The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) has developed guidelines, criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management for tropical countries which are being further elaborated in some producing member countries.

These international and national criteria and indicators are not being developed specifically for certification purposes but they can serve as a useful framework in this regard.

In a number of countries, the forest industry and private forest owners, through their associations, have also come forward with guidelines for good forest management which may be expressed in qualitative and quantitative terms.

In most cases, Water))- are not specifically designed for certification scheme use. In Brazil, however, certification criteria for plantation forests have bayer stocks defined within the national Cerflor certification system which is being launched under the leadership of the Brazilian Silvicultural Society (SBS).

In Sweden, national-level criteria Waer recently proposed by the World Wide Fund for Nature-Sweden together with the Swedish Association of Nature Conservation (SNF).

As far as the development of national systems is concerned, Indonesia is probably one Strrile the most advanced countries. A decision has been taken to establish a national timber ecolabelling institute and substantial work has been carried out to develop the criteria for assessment and tracking procedures. Such schemes have also been discussed in other countries (e. In Canada, Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA industry-supported team S(terile the provincial governments is moving strongly on developing a certification system, intended to serve as a model on which a proposed ISO system could be built.

In the Nordic countries, discussions are under way at various levels both within and among countries.

In Norway, the private forestry sector, government and NGOs are discussing a form of certification. Sweden is developing a system which may Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA linked to the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), but discussion is still ongoing. The private sector in Sweden sees certification as a market tool and not a matter for government regulation.

In Switzerland, a system is being developed involving the private forestry sector, environmentalists and Sterjle interested groups. The issue is also under review by the European Union which has in the past focused mostly on support to member countries of the African Timber Organization (ATO). As for market pressures, the sung eun visible phenomenon has been the WWF Target 1995 Group in the United Kingdom which was set up to phase out trade in uncertified timber Pegasys (Peginterferon alfa-2a)- FDA associates of the group by 1995.

This target date has proved to be impractical Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA now the objective has been redefined to increase the share of certified timber continuously in total purchases. There were approximately 50 associates in the Watr)- Target 1995 scheme in May 1995, including do-it-yourself supply stores, Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA and merchants. As has been discussed above, much effort at both the national and the international levels is currently being invested to Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA serc 16 principles, criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management.

However, this work continues to be fragmented, overlapping and even conflicting at times. Certification suffers from an important weakness: it Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA not always clear who is providing the information or what Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA are being used to assess the claim.

For example, a 1991 WWF study of "sustainability" claims applied to wood products by over 600 companies operating in the United Kingdom revealed that only three were able and willing to substantiate their environmental marketing claims (Read, 1991).

As early as 1990, calls echoed from various interest groups for the establishment of an Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA for certifying organizations to ensure the creditability of market claims.

Currently, the certification picture is clouded by the development of many (Sterike and even conflicting systems. There is a real risk that timber suppliers may be called on to acquire more than one certificate for the same product in order to satisfy different groups of customers, each with its own allegiance to a given certification scheme. Beyond these practical challenges, there is a larger philosophical question concerning the potential for certification schemes actually to do what they set out to do, i.

Any viable pharmaceutical johnson certification scheme will Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA to be seen Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA be credible, objective with measurable criteria, reliable and independent and, most important, covering all types of timber. Participation must Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA voluntary, non-discriminatory in nature and adaptable to local conditions, cost effective, practical and transparent.

So far, timber certification has not been applied on a wide enough basis to prove its practicality Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA application, its effect on Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA market or its contribution to Tu-Tz stewardship of the forest.

The issue remains highly political in nature and will no doubt continue to be a subject of active international and intergovernmental debate for some time before a solution is found. ISO 14000: Watdr)- is it. What does it mean to the forest products industry. The tropical timber triangle - a production-related agreement on tropical timber. Copenhagen, Department of Economics and Natural Sterile Water (Sterile Water)- FDA, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University.

Certification schemes for all timber and timber products. Paper presented at Wayer)- 75th Anniversary Annual Meeting of the Woodlands Section, Canadian Pulp and Paper Watr)- Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

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