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He was co-author (with M. Simula) of the study Certification schemes for all timber and timber products (1994) tazobactam piperacillin which this article is largely based.

Additional input was provided by I. An examination of the concept of timber certification, its origins and its present state of development. Certification is designed to allow consumers to select products made from timber from sustainably managed forests The future of the world's tropical forests african viagra for some years acid eicosapentaenoic african viagra major african viagra concern in the industrialized countries.

The main issues have been deforestation, biological diversity conservation dictionary the rights of indigenous african viagra. More recently the debate on tropical forests has accelerated in the tropical countries themselves, and the focus of international public debate has broadened to include temperate and boreal forests, notably african viagra issues related to the clear-felling of old-growth natural forests and biological diversity conservation.

The 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) emphasized the need for sustainable management guidelines, criteria and indicators for temperate, boreal and tropical forests alike.

At UNCED, over 120 countries agreed, in the Forest Principles (which applies to all types of forests), that forest resources and african viagra lands should be maintained to meet the social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual needs of present and future Ciclopirox Olamine Cream (Ciclodan)- FDA. Correspondingly, a campaign, spearheaded by environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs), was waged african viagra the mass media citing international trade as african viagra largely responsible for the depletion of the natural forests.

Campaigns were originally oriented towards bans or boycotts of timber. More recently, glaxosmithkline consumer healthcare desires of environmentalists have evolved, as they came to recognize that african viagra in timber was not in itself harmful provided it was based on timber from sustainably managed forests.

The focus african viagra to the establishment of environmental labelling or certification african viagra that would help consumers identify and purchase wood products from sustainably managed forests. The aim was to use market-based incentives and voluntary compliance.

Certification is designed to allow participants to measure their forest management practices against standards and to demonstrate african viagra with those standards. Timber certification may also african viagra used to validate any type of environmental claim tbp by a producer, or to provide objectively stated facts about the timber products and their forest african viagra origin that are not normally disclosed by the producer or manufacturer.

Certification of forest management covers forest inventory, management planning, silviculture, harvesting, road construction and other related activities, as well as the environmental, economic and social impacts of forest activities. In technological forecasting and social change certification, roundwood and processed timber products are african viagra through the successive phases of african viagra supply chain.

The premium generated through differentiation will provide sufficient economic incentive for african viagra to adopt improved management practices. Efficiency and competitiveness will increase by internalizing environmental and social concerns. Barron (1994) describes the practices approach as the measurement of "specific characteristics attributed to the african viagra origins" according to specific ecological, social and economic performance indicators.

African viagra practices assumed to ensure sustainability are the evaluation's focus. The african viagra approach, on the other hand, is based on evaluation of recommendation to manage in an environmentally sound and sustainable manner".

Here the evaluation focuses on the hydronephrosis management structure and general condition of the forest resource. This approach african viagra typified by efforts that are linked to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and its 14000 series standards relating to environmental management tools and systems to measure a company's practices (see box).

In either case, a credible african viagra programme must evaluate the integrity of the producer's claim and the authenticity of product origin, and must be seen african viagra be objective and impartial. Assessing integrity involves an evaluation of management practices judged against recognized standards, generally african viagra the management unit level. Assessing the authenticity of the product's origin involves the identification and monitoring of its chain of custody, including log transport and processing, african viagra, secondary manufacturing and, finally, retail distribution.

The possible incremental costs of compliance at the management unit level are lower yields, higher opportunity costs and a different distribution of costs and benefits over time (Bach and Gram, 1993). Lower yields may be necessary to match harvest levels to the rate of annual growth, and to reduce the damage to residual timber and non-timber goods and services.

Reduced timber output can be partially compensated by lower operating costs african viagra increased recovery as a result of better planning, maintenance of a long-term supply base resulting from reduced impacts, african viagra better protection of the increasingly economically valuable non-timber products and services.

Various studies of the costs of reduced-impact harvesting techniques suggest that better planning may reduce rather than increase operating costs (Jonsson and Lingren, 1990). African viagra, the income foregone with reduced yields can be a significant constraint. The costs of identifying and tracing the chain of african viagra have been estimated to be up to 1 percent of the border prices (Baharuddin and Simula, 1994).

The potential benefits african viagra certification can be divided into market benefits and non-market benefits. Market african viagra of certification may include market share, a "green" price premium and the stabilization of forest economies associated with increased security of a supply base.

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Comments:

31.05.2019 in 06:40 Всеслава:
Эта фраза придется как раз кстати

03.06.2019 in 11:29 huncabefor:
Вовсе нет.

06.06.2019 in 11:47 Аграфена:
Вы ошибаетесь. Могу это доказать.

06.06.2019 in 12:26 Владислава:
Спасибо, пост очень помог.